In hindsight, it is easy to praise the great strides made by the various revolutionary governments that passed radical legislation during the years 1789-1794. If we lived through events, however, we might see things differently. According to historian William Doyle, in the conclusion to his Oxford History of the French Revolution, certain groups were seriously and detrimentally impacted by the Revolution, including the charitable teaching and care-oriented lower orders of the clergy and the vulnerable people they traditionally helped: children, orphans, the aged, and the infirm. In fact, Doyle argues that hospitals and schools were much worse off by 1795 than they had been in 1789, and that the situation did not greatly improve over the next fifty years. “Yet some groups undoubtedly gained,” writes Doyle (407). Which of the following were the beneficiaries of the Revolution?
- the bourgeois ranks of bureaucrats and members of the liberal professions
- all of the above